What is Stopping Potential and Its Formula?
The term “stopping potential” refers to the minimum electric potential that needs to be applied to a charged particle to completely halt its motion. In other words, it is the electric potential that can counteract the kinetic energy of the particle, bringing it to a complete stop.
For electrons, stopping potential helps us to understand the photoelectric effect, where light incident on a metal surface causes the emission of electrons.
The stopping potential formula (Vs) is given by:
Vs = (hf – ϕ) / e
Additionally, the stopping potential in the context of the photoelectric effect is the voltage that needs to be applied to stop the emission of electrons from a metal surface when illuminated by light. The stopping potential (Vs) is related to the frequency of the incident light (f) and the work function of the metal (ϕ) by the equation:
This formula expresses the balance between the energy provided by the incident light (first term) and the energy needed to overcome the work function of the metal (second term). When the stopping potential is applied, it counteracts the kinetic energy of the emitted electrons, preventing them from reaching the collector plate in a photoelectric setup.
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Factors Affecting Stopping Potential
Several factors influence the value of stopping potential. Understanding these factors is crucial for studying various phenomena and practical applications. Let’s take a closer look at them:
1. Frequency of Incident Light
The frequency of the incident light has a direct impact on the energy carried by photons. Higher frequencies result in more energetic photons, which, in turn, possess greater kinetic energy. Consequently, higher-frequency light requires a higher stopping potential to halt the emitted electrons.
2. Work Function of the Metal
The work function (ϕ) of the metal refers to the minimum energy required to remove an electron from its surface. Metals with higher work functions demand greater stopping potentials to overcome the stronger binding forces holding the electrons within the material.
3. Charge of the Particle
The charge of the particle experiencing the electric field also influences the stopping potential. Heavier particles, such as ions, require different calculations than electrons due to their differing masses and charges.
4. Intensity of Incident Light
The intensity of the incident light affects the number of photons striking the metal surface. However, it does not directly impact the stopping potential, as it only alters the rate of electron emission, not the kinetic energy of individual electrons.
5. Nature of the Electric Field
The type of electric field used to stop the charged particles is a critical factor. Uniform electric fields are often utilized, but non-uniform fields can also play a role in certain experiments.
At higher temperatures, the kinetic energy of the electrons within the metal also increases. As a result, the stopping potential must be adjusted accordingly.
The Photoelectric Effect: A Key Application of Stopping Potential
The photoelectric effect, first explained by Albert Einstein, is one of the fundamental phenomena that demonstrate the significance of stopping potential. The effect involves the emission of electrons from a metal surface when illuminated by light of sufficient frequency.
To better understand this concept, we will briefly see how the photoelectric effect works:
Calculating Stopping Potential: Step-by-Step Guide
To calculate the stopping potential, follow these steps: