Skip to content

Gravitational Force Formula

What is Gravitational Force Formula?

The mathematical expression for the Gravitational force formula is F ∝ (Mm) / r2 which can be rewritten as F = (GMm) / r2. We can equally state the formula as the product of the masses between two objects and the square of the distance between them. Therefore, we can see that gravitational force is responsible for the phenomenon we commonly observe as weight, where objects are pulled toward the centre of the Earth. This force was first described by Sir Isaac Newton in his groundbreaking work on gravity.

The formula for gravitational force is:

F = (GMm) / r2

In the above formula:

F represents the gravitational force

G is the gravitational constant

M and m are the masses of the two objects and

r is the distance between their centres.

Have you ever wondered why objects fall to the ground or why planets revolve around the sun? The answer lies in the force that governs the motion of celestial bodies: gravity. In this article, I will discuss the gravitational force formula and explore its significance in various contexts.

Understanding Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation states that every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres. In simple terms, the force of gravity between two objects depends on their masses and the distance separating them. The mathematical expression of this law is:

F = (GMm) / r2

Variables in the Gravitational Force Formula

Gravitational Force Formula
Gravitational Force Formula

To better understand the formula, let me break down its variables:

  1. Gravitational constant (G): The symbol for gravitational constant is ‘G’. It has a value of approximately 6.67430 × 10-11 N(m/kg)2. It represents the proportionality factor in the equation and determines the strength of the gravitational force.
  2. Masses of the objects (M and m): These are the masses of the two objects due to the gravitational interaction. Therefore, the symbols ‘M’ and ‘m’ represent the masses of the objects. Additionally, the SI unit of these masses is in kilograms (kg).
  3. Distance between the objects (r): The ‘r’ in the formula denotes the distance between the centres of the two objects. It is measured in meters (m).

Application of Gravitational Force Formula to Solve Problem

Let’s explore some examples to understand how to calculate gravitational force using the formula.


Consider two objects: a 1 kg mass (M) and a 2 kg mass (m), separated by a distance of 3 meters (r).


By substituting these values into the gravitational force formula, we get:

F = (6.67430 × 10-11 x 1 x 2) / 32 [Remember that G is constant]

Simplifying the equation:

F = 1.483 × 10-11 N

Thus, the gravitational force between these two objects is approximately 1.483 × 10-11 Newtons.

This formula is not only for two objects. We can use it to calculate the gravitational force between any two objects in the universe, regardless of their size or distance.

The Relationship Between Mass and Gravitational Force

According to the gravitational force formula, the force of gravity is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the objects involved. This means that an increase in either mass will result in a stronger gravitational force between the objects. For example, if we double the mass of one object while keeping the other mass constant. Therefore, the gravitational force will also double.

The Relationship Between Distance and Gravitational Force

The gravitational force formula also reveals an inverse relationship between the distance separating two objects and the gravitational force between them. Therefore, as the distance between the objects increases, the gravitational force decreases. This relationship follows the inverse square law. Therefore, it means that doubling the distance between the objects will result in a quarter of the original gravitational force.

Gravitational Force and Weight

Weight refers to the force with which an object is attracted toward the Earth. Weight is the product of the mass and the gravitational acceleration of the object. Additionally, we can equally say that the weight of an object is directly proportional to the gravitational force acting on it. In everyday life, we often measure weight using units such as kilograms or pounds. However, it is ultimately a measure of the gravitational force on the object.

The Significance of Gravitational Force in Everyday Life

Gravitational force is very important in our daily lives. This is because it helps us to stand on the ground. Additionally, it ensures objects don’t float away. Finally, it allows us to interact with the physical world. Therefore, without the force of gravity, the world as we know it would be vastly different.

The Role of Gravitational Force in Celestial Bodies

Gravitational force not only affects objects on Earth but also governs the motion of celestial bodies in the universe. It holds planets in their orbits around the sun, maintains the stability of galaxies, and shapes the structure of the universe itself. Without the force of gravity, celestial bodies would drift apart or collapse under their own gravitational attraction.

The Limitations of the Gravitational Force Formula

While the gravitational force formula provides a fundamental understanding of the force of gravity, it has limitations. It assumes that the objects being considered are point masses (objects with negligible size) and that there are no other significant forces acting on them. In reality, objects have finite sizes and experience multiple forces, such as air resistance and electromagnetic forces, which can influence their motion.

The Influence of Other Factors on Gravitational Force

Although the gravitational force formula primarily depends on mass and distance, other factors can also affect gravitational force. Factors such as the distribution of mass within an object, its shape, and the presence of other nearby masses can all influence the overall gravitational force experienced.

Exploring Other Formulas Related to Gravitational Force

Beyond the gravitational force formula, there are other formulas and equations related to gravity that help us understand various phenomena. Some of these include the escape velocity formula, which determines the minimum velocity required for an object to escape the gravitational pull of a planet or celestial body, and the orbital velocity formula, which calculates the velocity required for an object to stay in a stable orbit around a central body.


Gravitational force is a fundamental concept that shapes our understanding of the physical world and the universe. The gravitational force formula, derived from Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation, allows us to calculate the force of gravity between two objects. By considering the masses of the objects and the distance between them, we can quantify the strength of the gravitational attraction.

Understanding the relationship between mass, distance, and gravitational force is essential for comprehending the behaviour of objects in everyday life and the motion of celestial bodies. It helps us explain phenomena such as falling objects, planetary orbits, and the structure of the universe.

However, it’s important to acknowledge the limitations of the gravitational force formula. It assumes idealized conditions and neglects factors like the size of objects and the presence of other forces. In reality, these factors can influence the actual gravitational force experienced by objects.

Moreover, the gravitational force is not only due to the interactions between just two objects. It extends to all objects with mass in the universe, affecting everything from tiny particles to massive galaxies.

In conclusion, the gravitational force formula provides a valuable framework for understanding the force that governs the behaviour of objects under gravity’s influence. It allows us to calculate the gravitational force between two objects and explore the relationships between mass, distance, and force. By unravelling the mysteries of gravitational force, we gain deeper insights into the workings of the universe.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Is the gravitational force formula applicable only on Earth? No, the gravitational force formula applies to any two objects with mass in the universe. It governs interactions between celestial bodies and objects on Earth.
  2. Can gravitational force be completely eliminated? Gravitational force is a fundamental force in the universe, and its effects cannot be entirely eliminated. However, its strength can be reduced by increasing the distance between objects or by decreasing their masses.
  3. What are some real-life applications of the gravitational force formula? The gravitational force formula finds applications in various fields, including astronomy, physics, engineering, and space exploration. It helps scientists understand the motion of planets, the behaviour of satellites, and the dynamics of celestial bodies.
  4. How does the gravitational force between Earth and the Moon affect tides? The gravitational force between Earth and the Moon creates tidal effects. It causes the ocean waters to bulge on the side facing the Moon and on the opposite side, resulting in high tides.
  5. Does the gravitational force formula account for the effects of relativity? The gravitational force formula we discussed is a classical description of gravity and does not incorporate the effects of general relativity. In extreme conditions or when dealing with high speeds or massive objects, the relativistic effects become significant.

You may also like to read:

Gravitational Force Definition