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Electric Field Integral Equation Derivation


In the realm of electromagnetics, understanding the behaviour of electric fields is very important. One of the fundamental tools used to analyze electric fields is the Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE). In this article, we will delve into the intricacies of EFIE derivation, breaking it down into digestible segments for a clear understanding. Let’s embark on this enlightening journey to explore the fascinating world of electric field integral equation derivation!

Electric Field Integral Equation Derivation

The derivation of the Electric Field Integral Equation is a crucial process that serves as a powerful analytical tool for solving electromagnetic problems. Below, we outline the step-by-step derivation of this equation to demystify its complexity.

Maxwell’s Equations and Boundary Conditions

Before diving into the derivation, let’s refresh our knowledge of Maxwell’s equations and boundary conditions. These serve as the foundation for the development of the EFIE.

Green’s Function and its Role in EFIE Derivation

Understanding the Green’s function is vital for comprehending the EFIE derivation. We’ll explore the concept of Green’s function and its significance in solving the integral equation.

Formulation of EFIE for Perfect Electric Conductors (PEC)

In this section, we’ll focus on the derivation of the EFIE specifically for Perfect Electric Conductors. PECs play a critical role in electromagnetics and serve as an essential building block for more complex scenarios.

Formulation of EFIE for Dielectric Objects

Extending the derivation to dielectric objects, we’ll explore how the EFIE is modified to account for the presence of dielectric materials. This will include considerations for material properties and their influence on the equation.

Singularity Extraction Techniques

Singularity extraction is a crucial aspect of EFIE derivation. We’ll dive into various techniques used to handle singularities arising during the process, ensuring accurate and stable solutions.

Discretization Methods for EFIE Solvers

Converting the EFIE into a numerical form requires the use of discretization methods. We’ll explore popular numerical techniques used to solve the equation effectively.

Method of Moments (MoM) for EFIE

The Method of Moments is a widely used numerical technique for solving the EFIE. In this section, we’ll explore the underlying principles and how MoM is applied to arrive at solutions.

Applications of Electric Field Integral Equation

The practical applications of the EFIE are vast and diverse. We’ll explore various scenarios where EFIE plays a vital role in solving real-world electromagnetic problems.

EFIE in Antenna Analysis

Antennas are crucial devices in modern communication systems. We’ll investigate how EFIE is employed to analyze and optimize antenna performance.

EFIE in Scattering and Radar Cross-Section (RCS) Analysis

Scattering phenomena and Radar Cross-Section are essential in radar and stealth technology. We’ll explore how EFIE aids in analyzing these phenomena.

EFIE in Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Analysis

EMC is critical for ensuring electronic devices work harmoniously in close proximity.

Challenges and Limitations of EFIE

While EFIE is a powerful tool, it’s not without its limitations. We’ll highlight the challenges associated with EFIE and the scenarios where it may not be the best choice.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q: What is the primary purpose of EFIE derivation?
A: The primary purpose of EFIE derivation is to formulate an integral equation that represents the electric field on the surface of a given object. This equation serves as a powerful tool to analyze electromagnetic fields.

Q: How does Green’s function contribute to EFIE derivation?
A: Green’s function plays a crucial role in EFIE derivation by providing the impulse response of the electric field due to a point source. It helps us determine the electric field at any point in space.

Q: What are Perfect Electric Conductors (PECs), and why are they important in EFIE derivation?
A: Perfect Electric Conductors are materials with infinite conductivity, resulting in no electric field penetration. They are vital in EFIE derivation as they serve as reference objects for formulating integral equations.

Q: How are singularities handled during EFIE derivation?
A: We handle singularities through various techniques such as regularization and subtraction. These methods ensure stable and accurate solutions to the integral equation.

Q: What are some common discretization methods used in EFIE solvers?
A: Some common discretization methods include the Method of Moments (MoM), the Galerkin method, and the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS).

Q: What are the practical applications of EFIE?
A: EFIE finds applications in antenna analysis, scattering and RCS analysis, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis, and more.


The Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) derivation is a fundamental process that underpins the analysis of electromagnetic fields. With its applications spanning various industries, understanding EFIE is essential for engineers and researchers alike. Throughout this article, we have explored the step-by-step derivation, the role of Green’s function, numerical solutions, and practical applications of EFIE. By grasping the core concepts, we empower ourselves to tackle complex electromagnetics challenges efficiently.